Finding public records in Oklahoma City is relatively straightforward. Adoptive parents Attorney for the subject or adoptive parents A representative with Power of Attorney document Legal guardian Anyone with a court order Foster parent Genealogists Individuals who wish to obtain copies of Oklahoma City birth certificates may do so online, by Phone: through third-party vendorsin-person, or by mail. Like birth and death certificates, some documents are confidential and only available to the subject and eligible individuals. Adoptive parents Attorney for the subject or adoptive parents A representative with Power of Attorney document Legal guardian Anyone with a court order Foster parent Genealogists Oklahoma city record who wish to obtain copies of Oklahoma City birth certificates may do so online, by Phone: through third-party vendorsin-person, or by mail. Like birth and death certificates, some documents are confidential and only available to the subject and eligible individuals.
The Horga, he says, is all kame, kettle and boulders, a challenge to cross. The cliff Roaldsteinen next to the farm Horgjem and the hill Horga in Iveland are both hill forts. There are traditions of trolls connected to both; Skar , Fjermedal , ; Aannestad This could be accidental if these two cases had been isolated, but there is a whole range of connections between horg places and hill forts. This may be part of the background for the farm name Horg.
In England, several horg sites feature prehistoric fortifications Semple The cairns Horgane in Hardanger name d. In this area, no hill forts with horg names are known, so it is unlikely that this meaning derives from some random hill fort with heaps of stone on it; this is, rather, an old, inherited meaning.
The mountain Horga in Romsdalen name b. It is located on its south-eastern slopes c. The fact that several of the rocks are of the same kind of gneiss, some of them seemingly even stemming from the same block Parelius , may support this understanding. It is also hard to see why people would invest the enor- mous amount of work needed to erect such a monument in the middle of a forest, several km away from summer farms and major communication lanes, with no exceptional natural formations in the immediate vicinity.
This, however, does not mean that it did not function as a cult site. Whether it did or not can only be determined by means of an archaeological excavation, but there is already reason to believe that some kind of religious notion or activity was connected to the site, because of the uniqueness of the stone construction and what we find in the vicinity. The background for this mountain name Horga remains a riddle, though.
Regarding question a , there is a clear tendency that the name bearers or formations from which the names seem to be derived, i. This is just one category of [bearers of] helg- names, however; the whole group seems far more heterogeneous than the horg names in Norway. I will focus on helg- names in a subsequent article.
At least seven cases are known, Manker They are typically found in the middle of a difficult block field that has to be traversed because it is the only passage between a lake and a vertical mountain face ibid. The ancientness of this pattern can be supported by the typological dating of some of the names that have the clea- rest connection with landscape barriers.
They belong to the simplex names that refer to landscape features, which are considered the oldest farm names we have ibid: 34 and thus belonging to the earliest Iron Age or even earlier times. There is some uncertainty about these two names, however. The name could derive from a man-made cult con- struction on the farm.
At any rate, the outlined naming pattern seems to predate the conversion by at least half a millennium, probably much more. The Horgen farms of south-eastern Norway seem not to fit into the outlined pattern. This does not necessarily contradict the pattern, however, as these farms may have featured man-made horgs that were in some way characterized by barriers. One might argue that an enclosure is very different from the lands- cape barriers discussed above, but that depends upon what we understand to be the essence of a cultic enclosure.
Obviously, its enclosing function is important. But, when barriers like fences, walls and hedges very often and throughout the world15 are found enclosing cult sites, their main function seems to be to mark the border between the profane world outside of it and the special status of the area inside. That is, they have a separating function, one of separating areas of different status.
From this perspective, it is not decisive whether the border encloses an area or not. Both cultic enclosures and landscape barriers between communities separate spheres of different social status. No stone rings are known at the other lowland Horgen farms, so we may not assume the same to be the background for those names, although there may have been now lost stone rings at some of the farms, or other kinds of now lost cultic enclosures or constructions developed from enclosures, see below. However, in order to be acceptable, these conclusions also have to be compatible with the rest of the material, not least the extensive Old Norse textual information.
Because a probable, original meaning of horg has already been established by other means, I will here not put too much emphasis on the dating of sources but rather focus on the semantic aspects. The following seems to be the information we get, cf. Flateyjarbok III: In the listed material, there is no clear connection to barriers or enclosures.
This may count against the theory put forward in the present article. Such an early meaning will not be contradicted by later develop- ments, and the Old Norse texts mostly reflect the latest phase of Nordic heathendom — or even post-conversion understandings. So may the meanings B. Meaning B. Firstly, a height, even if its surface has no obstacles, is a divide, a barrier, from which it is easier than elsewhere to stop an intruder, which is why fortifications have usually been placed on heights.
Secondly, there are often more obstacles, such as rocks and forest, on hills than between them, especially in a cultivated landscape. Moraine hills, frequently strewn with rocks and boulders, are a common hill type in Scandinavia, especially its eastern parts, and quite a few of the Swedish dialect horg explanations explicitly link the term to moraines Rostvik When considered from this angle, it also makes good sense that places with horg names in England are in several cases heights with remains of both ancient fortifi- cations and Romano-British temples Semple Coinciden- tally or not, it is both a barrier height fortification and site with cultic buildings.
Bjorvand , Similarly, a grove can be hard both to get into and to pass through. Compare birch or spruce branches and reindeer horn put into the ground as enclosures around Sami sacrificial sites Manker Meaning F. It is located on a smooth rock top of a prominent divide, a low moraine hill the surrounding landscape is flat , which separates two communities and two landscape types Olausson , On both sides of the hill, a horg farm is found — Old Swedish Hargher, about a km to the north, and Odhinshargher now Odensala , about the same distance to the south.
The complex is dominated by two more or less concentric walls some 50 m in diame- ter , so low that they would have no defence value, and by a grave mound in the middle. One could argue that the dating of this complex is too early; the activity around the walls being dated to BC ibid: This may be the case in the Bible translation, too E.
Enclosing fences are often essential parts of cult sites and such fences can be wooden, piled of stones or even a combination: stone walls with timber on top. Quite a number of Sami sacrificial sites are enclosed by this combined type of fence with an idol, heap of stones or other in the middle Manker , Vorren The stone parts are typically cm high, with the timber part on top of that Vorren This may have shifted the emphasis of the cultic horg from an enclosure to a build- ing developed from the object inside the enclosure cf.
This implies that the horgs Bede knew were surrounded by fences, which he regarded as religiously essential parts of these cult sites. During the most recent decades, archaeologists have found at such sites several complexes consisting of small build- ings rich in cultic finds next to central hall buildings, and many of these small buildings, which are probably cult-related, are surrounded by fences e.
As has been pointed out by many scholars e. De Vries had something similar in mind when he argued that a horg was an altar with an enclosure around it de Vries I: This may well be the easiest understanding of the Old Norse meanings F. But he seems to have no example of this and etymology counts against it, hof seems originally to have been a word for a height Bjorvand and Lindeman , Andersson Several scholars e.
Falk and Torp , not necessarily enclosed. It should also be stressed, however, that the material discussed here is not the basis for the theory put forward in the present study. The theory has a fairly robust basis in other types of evidence, and it seems compatible with the material discussed here.
What kind of cult? The total corpus of information about horg gives the impression that horg sites were very diverse and that cultic horgs existed over a vast area at least from the early centuries AD cf. This may imply that the religious notions and practices associated with horg sites were also very diverse, more diverse than has been realized cf. Nordberg So does the connection between horgs and mountain crossings and the passing of prominent cliffs and the like near old roads.
Heide a, b: , , Mathisen Anttonen and Therefore, he suggested that these names reflect private cult and the central horg names public cult Olsen There may be something to this, although the private cult connected to landscape barriers may have been much simpler than what Olsen had in mind cf.
On the coast, sailors would take off their hats or pay their respects in other ways when passing a mountain that was known to generate dangerous winds or other critical points Solheim The cult at Odensala vicarage was very different from this, with extensive burning on the cliff and extensive sacrifices of food and animals Olausson Near Horgheim in the valley of Romsdalen name o.
It is conceivable that the cave in the moun- tain Hor g berget in Northern Norway name a. In other cases, such focal points may not have existed. Our information about what kind of cult was connected to horg sites is still very limited, which means that the suggestions put forward here are equally limited. Conclusion It seems that the landscape location of horg names in the mountainous and hilly parts of Norway contains an ancient naming pattern that can shed light on the horg complex.
There is a clear tendency for the natural features bearing such names to be prominent. This, combined with the Old Germanic textual evidence, indicates that most of these names and their bearers had some kind of religious significance, a conclusion that contrasts with the hypercritical rejection of this religious aspect during the s.
This understanding is compatible with more or less all of the seemingly incon- gruous and confusing forms of horg, although the Old Germanic meanings of horg are so diverse that many of them had clearly developed quite far from the original meaning at the time of recording. The basis for this view seems, on closer inspection, to be weak and largely built upon circular reasoning.
Not much can yet be said for sure about pre-Christian cult and beliefs connected to horg sites, except that they were probably very diverse, far more diverse than has been realized. The results of this study suggest that more attention should be paid to non-farm names as a source for Old Scandinavian religion than has hitherto been done. Alt- hough the non-farm names in Norway are usually recorded very late, a pattern in a large corpus of such names can be relatively robust and may be anchored in ancient times through individual, typologically datable names as well as supported by etymology, archaeological monuments, medieval texts and other independent material.
The results of this study also suggest that more attention should be paid to possible naming patterns revealed in a wider landscape context than is normally done. Primitive Tider 6. In Karl Hauck ed. Berlin: de Gruyter. Turnhout Brepols. Bjorvand, Harald Holt og holtar Oslo: Solum. Oslo: Novus. Northcote Toller An Anglo-Saxon dictionary.
Oxford University Press. Brekke, Nils Georg et. Bergen: Hordaland fylkeskom- mune. London: Seaby. Place and Space of Cult and Myth. In Michael Stausberg ed. Oslo: Samlaget. Namn och bygd Christensen, Olav Bergteken. Nye vegar til gamle segner. Oslo: Norsk folkeminnelag. Den eldre Gulatingslova Oslo: Riksarkivet. Edda Snorra Sturlusonar Exordium monasterii quod dicitur cara insula Eyrbyggja saga Norden i romersk jernalder og folkevandringstid. A dialogue between arranged and natural places?
Lund: Nordic Academic Press. Buskeruds Amt. Kristiania: Cammermeyer. Kristiania: Aschehoug. Romsdal Sogelag. Faye, Andreas Norske Sagn. Arendal: N. Fjermedal, Aslak Iveland II. Iveland bygdesogenemnd. Christiania: Malling. Fritzner, Johan Ordbog over Det gamle norske Sprog Kristiania: Den norske Forlagsfo- rening. Hugo Pipping. MA thesis. In John McKinnel et. University of Durham. The potential of late evidence.
Saga and East Scandinavia Maal og Minne. Viking and Medieval Scandinavia Helsinki: Suomalainen Tidedeakatemia. Tartu: University of Tartu Press. Hellquist, Elof Svensk etymologisk ordbok. Lund: Gleerup. Helsinki: Suomalainen tiedeakatemia. Molde: Romsdal sogelag. Honko, Lauri De finsk-ugriske folks religion. Oslo: Cappelen akademisk forlag.
Etymologinen sanakirja Helsinki: Suomalaisen kirjallisuuden seura. In Egon Wamers et. Bonn: Habelt. In Kerstin P. Hofmann et. Paderborn: Fink. Karlamagnus saga ok kappa hans… Nordre Bergenhus Amt. Kristiania: Fabritius. Kristians Amt. Folklore: Electronic Journal of Folklore Jakob Benediktsson. Larsen, Amund B. Nedenes Amt. Lewis, Charlton T. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Lloyd, Albert L. Stockholm: Gebers. Meidell, Sigurd Fra Jondal. Meier, John Ahnengrab und Rechtsstein Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.
Meister, Michael W. Detroit: Macmillan. Drammen: Sigdal og Eggedal historielag. Sesong 2. Nordland, Odd Valhall and Helgafell In Sven S. Hartman ed. Scripta instituti donneriani aboensis 3. Noreen, Adolf Abriss der urgermanischen lautlehre. Strassburg: Verlag von Karl J. Norsk Ordbok Olausson, Michael Det inneslutna rummet Olsen, Magnus Norske Gaardnavne Kristiania: Dybwad.
Parelius, Nils Alteret i Horja. Bern: Francke. Ramstad, Morten et. Antiquity In Kildeskrifter til den lappiske mythologi I, ed. Just Qvigstad. Rostvik, Allan Har och harg. Rygh, Karl Norske Gaardnavne Romsdals Amt. Oslo: Dybwad. Schmidt-Wiegand, Ruth Alach. Semple, Sarah Defining the OE hearg. Early Medieval Europe Simek, Rudolf Lexikon der germanischen Mythologie. Oslo: Etnografisk museum. Skar, Hans Det gamle Snaasen. Kristiania: Det mallingske Bogtrykkeri.
Skautrup, Peter Det danske sprogs historie 1. Warsaw: Polish Academy of Sciences. Lisbeth Bredholt Christensen et. Durham: Acumen. Solheim, Svale Nemningsfordomar ved fiske. Oslo: Det norske videnskaps-akademi. Oslo: Aschehoug. Myter, riter, samfunn. Besides these outer limits, we are confronted with inner limits—limits to our thinking and acting under conditions of uncertainty: risk aversion, mental framing, short-termism, distorted perceptions of correlations and causalities are but some examples.
This lecture offers a comprehensive insight into this new age of humankind, describing the main theoretical features and empirical findings and offering a first meta-narrative for the 21st century. Psychology of transformation Mankind is undergoing an evolutionary transformation; There are several ways to interpret this mega-shift.
We might end up with less information but more knowledge, less control but a deeper understanding, less independence but more interdependency, and we might end up not being a bigger fish in a smaller pond, but rather become a smaller part in a bigger, often unknown interdependent and limited whole. It is not the chosen governance or technology, but the chosen psychology that is the game changer enabling or preventing successful survival in the Anthropocene.
None of these issues are new, at least not in part. What is new about this approach is that we have to find solutions and operate within an era of interconnectedness and boundaries. It is a more progressive way, where world-centric viewpoints, identities, values and mindsets dominate the mental operating system, where we are sufficiently critical towards our one point of knowing and admit the limits to our control, insight and management skills; where we start identifying inconsistencies, contradictions, and uncertainty and become capable of dealing with the unknown.
Yet all this requires a different language, different emotions, a different way of communicating and a different way of dealing with one another. To put it plainly: Do we simply reshuffle the cards of the game, or do we change the rules of the game? Currently we just have to tell ourselves the unpleasant truth, but evolution has given us the mental capacities to face it.
So we need a new thinking! Financing our future There is no way to think and manage our future without rethinking and reshaping our monetary system. Every endeavor that fails to offer a solid plan for how to address the upcoming challenges — from alleviating poverty to accessing health care, to entering schooling, to finding a job, to tackling the degradation of the environment to name but a few — remains a purely theoretical and rhetorical exercise from a financial perspective.
This lecture offers a new, evidence-based and out-of-the-box approach that mainstream economy is missing completely. In a nutshell: it is about a parallel monetary system, operating optionally and complementarily to the given system, which is going to be the game changer. And we are talking about big money. Research has demonstrated a 6 trillion USD bill necessary to, really, finance our common future. The elephant is in the room, but nobody wants to talk about it. What we all believe in Religious beliefs and their impact on society and science have been one of the most overlooked topics in modern times.
This lecture aims to elaborate and identify the characteristics and common ground for interfaith dialogue. Current interfaith dialogue is dominated by historical analysis, theological interpretations of texts exegesis , and disputes about institutional and organizational structures of competencies, power, influence and hierarchy within each religious administration. However, the common denominator emerges neither from the rational discursive dialogue of interpreting texts such as the Bible or other holy books , nor from disputes about organizational and institutional aspects power, hierarchy and influence , nor from humanitarian commitment, as this is shared with most secular NGOs.
It is the mystical tradition in each faith that determines the different specifics of every world religion. Empirical findings fasting, mantras, mindfulness, transcending ego states among others in neurobiology, developmental psychology and medicine demonstrate the power and leverage any interfaith dialogue can achieve, making a substantial and sustainable contribution both to society and to personal individuation.
Our interfaith dialogue will always miss the point if it fails to refer to this finding. A psychogram of terrorism Responding to daily terror attacks, ongoing asymmetric wars, managing disturbed citizens going on killing sprees in schools and public spaces is leading to massive military and police armament all over the world. We spend over 2 trillion USD a year on all kinds of security measures to defend ourselves from ourselves, from friends and enemies.
However, these armament responses are just one side of the coin.
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Below are some of the main factors driving secular trends across various industries and examples of companies riding the trend. Global Warming Global warming is a societal and political issue driving long-term changes in many areas of life and leading to long-term secular trends; both positive and negative. The issue of global warming is driving long-term positive secular trends in areas such as green energy and electric vehicles. Interestingly, the entire automotive industry seems to be getting caught up in the bubbly electric vehicle valuation multiples despite the low probability that people are suddenly going to be buying more cars because they are electric… On the negative side, the issue of global warming is causing negative secular trends in the carbon-producing oil and gas industry as investors start to price in the end of the internal combustion engine.
Other high carbon-emitting industries are also likely to see disruption and higher costs as they begin to be charged for their emissions and need to make technological advancements to become more efficient, as well as purchase carbon credits. From health foods to home workout equipment, the drive of consumers for health and well-being products is driving numerous secular trends across consumer staples and discretionary businesses.
Being positively affected by health and well-being secular trends are companies such as Peloton with their home workout equipment, Beyond Meat with their perceptively healthier meatless burgers and large grocer Whole Foods. In terms of a negative secular trend in the health and well-being category, tobacco is a classic example.
The now known risks of smoking cigarettes have led to slowly declining sales for decades. In the United States, individual cigarette sales have decreased from This Because of this negative secular growth rate, companies in the tobacco industry trade with low valuations and high dividends. The Internet While the internet might seem like an old invention in this tech-savvy day and age, it is still enabling many new secular trends to occur.
The internet lowered barriers to entry in many industries, made advertising more effective and achievable for new businesses, and allowed new levels of scale and mediums of communication to be created by technology companies and platforms. Industries being affected by the use of the internet include e-commerce on the positive side Amazon or Shopify , brick and mortar retail on the negative side Sears , and travel and leisure Airbnb to name a few.
Even transportation companies such as Uber have benefited from the connection and scale of new platform internet-based businesses. Courier companies such as FedEx have seen home deliveries surge from all those e-commerce packages. As more of our information goes up on the internet, positive secular trends are also being created in cyber security spending. Lastly, with more information available through the internet, better, more timely, and inter-connected decisions can be made.
Companies are often secular when the primary business relates to consumer staples or products that most households consistently use. Consumer staples can include personal care items, such as shampoo and toilet paper, various food-item producers, and certain pharmaceutical companies.
Secular stocks are very different from cyclical stocks , which are securities whose price is impacted by the movement in the overall economy due to consumer buying power. Special Considerations Secular movements can proceed in either a positive or negative direction. Therefore, the term does not always mean growth.
Investors may be secular bears or secular bulls. Also, secular can refer to subtle or dramatic movements as the term does not identify the degree of change. The defining characteristics are the long-term nature of the movement and the lack of impact of short-term trends on associated activity.
In support of his argument, Siegel points to the years between and During any rolling year period within this timeframe, stocks outperformed all other asset classes, especially bonds and T-bills. Most experts agree that a year period constitutes a secular trend. While experts consider them to be long term, secular trends are not necessarily permanent.
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