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In one of the experimental conditions, participants simply saw six lines, whereas in the other condition, the lines were systematically categorized into two groups—one comprising the three shorter lines and one comprising the three longer lines. From Tajfel Tajfel found that the lines were perceived differently when they were categorized, such that the differences between the groups and the similarities within the groups were emphasized.
Specifically, he found that although lines C and D which are actually the same length were perceived as equal in length when the lines were not categorized, line D was perceived as being significantly longer than line C in the condition in which the lines were categorized. Similar effects occur when we categorize other people.
We tend to see people who belong to the same social group as more similar than they actually are, and we tend to judge people from different social groups as more different than they actually are. The results of these studies, as well as other studies like them, were clear: people perceive outgroups as more homogeneous than their ingroup. Just as White people used fewer piles of traits to describe Blacks than Whites, young people used fewer piles of traits to describe elderly people than they did young people, and students used fewer piles for members of other universities than they did for members of their own university.
This prevents us from really learning about the outgroup members as individuals, and as a result, we tend to be unaware of the differences among the group members. Once we begin to see the members of outgroups as more similar to each other than they actually are, it then becomes very easy to apply our stereotypes to the members of the groups without having to consider whether the characteristic is actually true of the particular individual.
If men think that women are all alike, then they may also think that they all have the same positive and negative characteristics e. And women may have similarly simplified beliefs about men e. The outcome is that the stereotypes become linked to the group itself in a set of mental representations Figure Stereotypes are the beliefs associated with social categories.
The figure shows links between the social category of college professors and its stereotypes as a type of neural network or schema. The representation also includes one image or exemplar of a particular college professor whom the student knows. Image courtesy of Dan Gilbert. Our stereotypes and prejudices are learned through many different processes. This multiplicity of causes is unfortunate because it makes stereotypes and prejudices even more likely to form and harder to change.
And there is often good agreement about the stereotypes of social categories among the individuals within a given culture. In one study assessing stereotypes, Stephanie Madon and her colleagues Madon et al. The participants tended to agree about what traits were true of which groups, and this was true even for groups of which the respondents were likely to never have met a single member Arabs and Russians.
Even today, there is good agreement about the stereotypes of members of many social groups, including men and women and a variety of ethnic groups. Once they become established, stereotypes like any other cognitive representation tend to persevere. We begin to respond to members of stereotyped categories as if we already knew what they were like.
Yaacov Trope and Eric Thompson found that individuals addressed fewer questions to members of categories about which they had strong stereotypes as if they already knew what these people were like and that the questions they did ask were likely to confirm the stereotypes they already had. In other cases, stereotypes are maintained because information that confirms our stereotypes is better remembered than information that disconfirms them.
If we believe that women are bad drivers and we see a woman driving poorly, then we tend to remember it, but when we see a woman who drives particularly well, we tend to forget it. This illusory correlation is another example of the general principle of assimilation—we tend to perceive the world in ways that make it fit our existing beliefs more easily than we change our beliefs to fit the reality around us. And stereotypes become difficult to change because they are so important to us—they become an integral and important part of our everyday lives in our culture.
Stereotypes are frequently expressed on TV, in movies, and in social media, and we learn a lot of our beliefs from these sources. In short, stereotypes and prejudice are powerful largely because they are important social norms that are part of our culture Guimond, Because stereotypes and prejudice often operate out of our awareness, and also because people are frequently unwilling to admit that they hold them, social psychologists have developed methods for assessing them indirectly.
Research Focus Measuring Stereotypes Indirectly One difficulty in measuring stereotypes and prejudice is that people may not tell the truth about their beliefs. Most people do not want to admit—either to themselves or to others—that they hold stereotypes or that they are prejudiced toward some social groups. To get around this problem, social psychologists make use of a number of techniques that help them measure these beliefs more subtly and indirectly.
Social psychological research employs many indirect measures of prejudice; for instance, assessing nonverbal behaviors such as speech errors or physical closeness. People who sit farther away are assumed to be more prejudiced toward the members of the group. In these procedures, participants are asked to make a series of judgments about pictures or descriptions of social groups and then to answer questions as quickly as they can, but without making mistakes.
In the IAT, participants are asked to classify stimuli that they view on a computer screen into one of two categories by pressing one of two computer keys: one with their left hand and one with their right hand. For instance, in one version of the IAT, participants are shown pictures of men and women and are also shown words related to academic disciplines e. The basic assumption is that if two concepts are associated or linked, they will be responded to more quickly if they are classified using the same, rather than different, keys.
Implicit association procedures such as the IAT show that even participants who claim that they are not prejudiced do seem to hold cultural stereotypes about social groups. Even Black people themselves respond more quickly to positive words that are associated with White rather than Black faces on the IAT, suggesting that they have subtle racial prejudice toward their own racial group. Because they hold these beliefs, it is possible—although not guaranteed—that they may use them when responding to other people, creating a subtle and unconscious type of discrimination.
Do you hold implicit prejudices? Stereotyping is problematic when the stereotypes we hold about a social group are inaccurate overall, and particularly when they do not apply to the individual who is being judged Stangor, Stereotyping others is simply unfair. Even if many women are more emotional than are most men, not all are, and it is not right to judge any one woman as if she is.
Once we believe that men make better leaders than women, we tend to behave toward men in ways that makes it easier for them to lead. And we behave toward women in ways that makes it more difficult for them to lead. The result? Of course, you may think that you personally do not behave in these ways, and you may not.
But research has found that stereotypes are often used out of our awareness, which makes it very difficult for us to correct for them. Furthermore, attempting to prevent our stereotype from colouring our reactions to others takes effort. Social Psychology in the Public Interest Stereotype Threat Our stereotypes influence not only our judgments of others but also our beliefs about ourselves, and even our own performance on important tasks.
In some cases, these beliefs may be positive, and they have the effect of making us feel more confident and thus better able to perform tasks. On the other hand, sometimes these beliefs are negative, and they create negative self-fulfilling prophecies such that we perform more poorly just because of our knowledge about the stereotypes.
Claude Steele and Joshua Aronson tested the hypothesis that these differences might be due to the activation of negative stereotypes. Steele and Aronson argued that thinking about negative stereotypes that are relevant to a task that one is performing creates stereotype threat—performance decrements that are caused by the knowledge of cultural stereotypes. That is, they argued that the negative impact of race on standardized tests may be caused, at least in part, by the performance situation itself.
Research has found that the experience of stereotype threat can help explain a wide variety of performance decrements among those who are targeted by negative stereotypes. Even groups who typically enjoy advantaged social status can be made to experience stereotype threat. Stereotype threat is created in situations that pose a significant threat to self-concern, such that our perceptions of ourselves as important, valuable, and capable individuals are threatened.
In these situations, there is a discrepancy between our positive concept of our skills and abilities and the negative stereotypes suggesting poor performance. When our stereotypes lead us to be believe that we are likely to perform poorly on a task, we experience a feeling of unease and status threat. Research has found that stereotype threat is caused by both cognitive and affective factors. On the cognitive side, individuals who are experiencing stereotype threat show an impairment in cognitive processing that is caused by increased vigilance toward the environment and attempts to suppress their stereotypical thoughts.
Stereotype threat is not, however, absolute—we can get past it if we try. What is important is to reduce the self-concern that is engaged when we consider the relevant negative stereotypes. Key Takeaways Beliefs about the characteristics of the groups and the members of those groups are known as stereotypes.
Prejudice refers to an unjustifiable negative attitude toward an outgroup. Stereotypes and prejudice may create discrimination. Stereotyping and prejudice begin from social categorization—the natural cognitive process by which we place individuals into social groups.
Social categorization influences our perceptions of groups—for instance, the perception of outgroup homogeneity. Once our stereotypes and prejudices become established, they are difficult to change and may lead to self-fulfilling prophecies, such that our expectations about the group members make the stereotypes come true. Stereotypes may influence our performance on important tasks through stereotype threat.
Exercises and Critical Thinking Look again at the pictures in Figure What are your stereotypes and prejudices about them? Do you think your stereotypes are accurate? Think of a task that one of the social groups to which you belong is considered to be particularly good or poor at.
Do you think the cultural stereotypes about your group have ever influenced your performance on a task? References Aboud, F. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 20, — Allport, G. The nature of prejudice. New York, NY: Doubleday. Alter, A. Rising to the threat: Reducing stereotype threat by reframing the threat as a challenge. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46 1 , — Aronson, J. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 35, 29— Barden, J.
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Social perception and interpersonal behavior: On the self-fulfilling nature of social stereotypes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35 9 , — Stangor, C. Content and application inaccuracy in social stereotyping. Lee, L. McCauley Eds. Effects of multiple task demands upon memory for information about social groups. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 27 4 , — Categorization of individuals on the basis of multiple social features.
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Workplace stereotyping is a fixed, overgeneralized belief about a person or group of people. This stereotype may be based on your past experience with someone of a similar age, . Sep 29, · Classification causes problems as it can lead to stereotyping or pigeonholing people and groups of people based on certain mental Solution Summary Discusses the . What is the difference between categorization and stereotyping? As nouns the difference between opinion and stereotype is that opinion is a belief that a person has formed about a .